Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (2011)
  • Also known  as the Istanbul Convention, it aims at  prevention of violence, victim protection and to end with the impunity of perpetrators.
Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993)
  • It requires Member States to: Condemn violence against women and not invoke custom, tradition or religion to avoid their obligations to eliminate such violence; Develop penal, civil, labour and administrative sanctions in domestic legislation to punish and redress the wrongs caused to victims; Provide access to the mechanisms of justice and, as provided for by national legislation, to just and effective remedies; and Ensure that the secondary victimization of women does not occur because of laws insensitive to gender considerations, enforcement practices or other interventions
Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing (1995); Beijing Platform for Action (2000)
  • Call on governments to enact and reinforce penal, civil, labour and administrative sanctions in domestic legislation to punish and redress the wrongs done to victims; Adopt, implement and review legislation to ensure its effectiveness in eliminating violence against women, emphasizing the prevention of violence and the prosecution of offenders; and Take measures to ensure the protection of women subjected to violence, access to just and effective remedies, including compensation and indemnification and healing of victims, and rehabilitation of perpetrators.
Inter-American Convention for the prevention, punishment and elimination of violence against women (1995)
  • It is also known as the Convention of Belém do Pará and requires that States parties apply due diligence to prevent, investigate and impose penalties for violence against women.
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (1998)
  • It provides the broadest statutory recognition of gender-based violence as a crime under international criminal law to date
  • Arts. 7(1)(g), 8 (2)(b)(xxii)
 The Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (1949)
  • It calls for the punishment of those procuring others for prostitution.
UN General Assembly Resolution 61/143 of 19 December 2006 on the intensification of efforts to eliminate all forms of violence against women
  • It stresses the need to criminalize all forms of violence against women, and urges States to revise or abolish all laws and regulations that discriminate against women or have a discriminatory impact on women and ensure that provisions of multiple legal systems comply with international human rights obligations.
UN General Assembly Resolution 63/155 of 18 December 2008
  • It urges States to use best practices to end impunity and a culture of tolerance towards violence against women, including by evaluating and assessing the impact of legislation, rules and procedures regarding violence against women; reinforcing criminal law and procedure relating to all forms of violence against women; and incorporating into law measures aimed at preventing violence against women